Sunday, October 31, 2010




NOTES: From Theory to Practice:

pgs. 22-27, 32-33

.weaver and shannon: the matematical theory. best system for tele communication. their theory showed how to compress and send as much info down a channel as possible withought osing essetial parts that affect meaning.

.simple diagram.

.but there are three communication problems:

technical: what is best method/thing to use to encode. is it universally compatible?

semantic: is the instrument used to encode and decode precise enough to be acurate? is the message ever partially lost? what language should be used.

effectiveness: is the message efeective. what do you do if the message is not effective.

.its intersting to note that 'many designers reject the notion of process'.

.a designers way too look at it:

client> designer/artefact>---noise---> media outlet, audience.

designers are only sometimes responsible for the technical aspect of a communication systemt (ie website, tv show, etc). however they might consider what is the best form of communication for a particular audience.

EMMERT and DONNAGHY use a similar design, and emphasize FEEDBACK - it is important to know the effectiveness your message. you get this through feedback. Weaver and Shannon neglected to consider this. there are different methods for getting feedback: focus groups, sales figures, etc.



Notes from PDF:

the relationship between the source and the receiver is an important variable in the communication process. therefore the diagram is DYADIC. the higher the communication skills of the source and the reciever, the more effective the message.

for succesful communication needs:

for the encoder: speaking and writing,

for the decoder: listening and reading

and for both you need THOUGHT or REASON.

when communicating, the sender needs to know the appropriate grammar and conventions of their target audience and adapt the use of code to the audience.

the source needs to be knowledgeable. a sender needs to have a positive attitude, know how to treat a message, and know as much as possible about subject matter.

– the source in regards to social systems/culture: People in differing social classes communicate differently. careful consideration of word choice, motives, choice of channel will help with the effectiveness of the message.

–concerning the sender and his/her aditude:

. a sender should have a positive attitude. a sender should be confident in their message (because they have reliable knowledge). a sender should not be prejudice or that will come through in a message. do not be condescending with the message, or too cute and clever, nor should you make a message too complex by assuming things.

All these things apply to both the SOURCE AND THE RECIEVER.

–the message:

the source (sender) should consider what code is apporpriate, and what structre and what elements to focus on.


the channels can appeal to any of the five senses. in profesional practice you might be limited in what channel you can use. it might be to expensive to make a cd, so you do a podcast. of course the sender should consider what is most pracitcal, and what is most appropriate.



response to:

(1953) by Ray & Charles Eames. A film:

notes to film:

It's important to make sure that noise is not an issue. Noise can manifest itself in more ways than one – when you decode a message, the meaning might have changed. Ways to combat the issue of noise is through redundancy by using more channels than one so that if one channel is obscured, then another channel which says the same thing is understood.

The example of the painter for the model is helpful in showing the cultural understanding of the source (the message sender) and the receiver. if the painter has an obscured concept of something, or a prejudice – the noise that disrupts the signal can be many things: the light, the prejudices of the viewer and the idiosyncrasies of the painter. all the receivers might get different ideas from one message.

there are universal messages, such as facial expressions.

A society is structured through a complex system of symbols that are transmitted and received.

symbols change and evolve. Some methods of transmitting messages become symbols.

Some encoded messages are sent using certain technologies or methods that use small parts to make something bigger. (like the half tone dots which make an image on a print).

summation and pontification of class lecture.



when finalizing a design in whatever all things things should be consciously considered:

ANNOTATED Shannon/weaver model (c. late 1940s

priority: mechanical mediation:

theres a sender and theres a channel. a person sending a message through a channel. this is an interesting theory for designers because you can tranform speech what you can do visually.


SOURCE >TRANSMITTER ---channel Message---> reciever > destination

NOISE gets in the way of the reciever getting to the message


.source is: communication, attitudes, knowledge, social system, culture

.transmitter is:

.channel is: what channel you use, radio, poster, tv etc. (sound, text etc)

.NOISE: is things that get in the way of meaning: pour craft, using read could have different meanings. etc. (something that is a problem) however you can use noise IN YOUR FAVOR (ie if something is pixely you can use that in your favor). you caan use noise think of more things that create noise.



.These all reflect how the audience encodes the structure, and decodes the structure.



SOURCE > MESSAGE > channel>reciever

source: comm. skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, culture.

message: use rhetoric, form and concept go together. elements, content, treatment, structure, code.

channel: seeing, hearing, touching , smeling, tasting.> what is the channel that is best for you audience, what sense do you appeal to with your audience. think about what channel effects your message and whether it does so positively or negatively.

reciever: you need feedback! get it.


EMmert/Donaghy model (1981)

a: inpusts, outpust, processing (what is the motivation of the for the audience.


a< -----~~~~noiise~~~~~~>b


Feedback: Know when you do have feedback - make sure that the feedbacker understands and can have an inciteful dialogue. companies will have a big room of people who are there just to give feedback.

Summation of lecture:

The models for communication theory seem to become more clear yet more complex as new models are developed.

The Shannon/Weaver model from the '50s seems fairly straight forward:

The model demonstrates how a message (which could be radio show, a telegraph, a you tube video, a magazine etc.) is sent and received.

source > transmitter -----channel message NOISEESEESE--------> reciever>DESTINATION.

source: what the message is

transmitter: how the message is sent

channel: the action of the message being sent. and this is where noise can interfere

receiver: to whom the source is sent.

destination: where the receiver is.

THOUGHTS: the concept of noise is interesting. It is part of what makes design a challenge. The idea of using noise to your own advantage when sending a message is intriguing. Noise might be used to simultaneously (with the original message you are sending) and seamlessly enrich the meaning of a message.

concerning BERLO'S model (from 1960)


This diagram is similar to the previous. However it has more clarification and specific examples of each variable. It considers things more in depth.

"(These) variables are present in person-to-person communication. When one is attempting to convey an emotionally complex message, the Berlo Model may be the more appropriate choice. For the transmission of a straightforward message where both parties have a similar knowledge base, the Shannon-Weaver Model, although often thought of as simplistic, can be more effective than the Berlo Model."(source:

When considering the Berlo Model, one must realize the complexities that are involved with the human mind and how it is developed. Each person might have a different experience of any one thing. This makes noise (which is thought of as mostly negative because it inhibits the clarity of a message) a more considerable variable. For example, one person might have a negative attitude to a symbol (which might be the message) and therefore look on the message negatively, whereas a different person might look at that symbol and see it as a positive thing and consider it to be a positive thing. The latter person would therefore appreciate the message.


Then there's the Emmert & Donnaghy model from 1981:

This model considers everything from the previous models, but emphasizes the importance of the FEEDBACK from your audience. The better the understanding of your audience is, the more powerful your message will be.

You have to consider what is the motivation of the for the audience.


a< -----~~~~noiise~~~~~~>b


Feedback: Know when you do have feedback - make sure that the feedbacker understands and can have an inciteful dialogue. companies will have a big room of people who are there just to give feedback.

Thoughts: When considering your audience, it sometimes is easy to be over simplify your message, and not have a complete understanding of your receiver and therefore you might give the impression of being a bit condescending, and a bit of a poser (which is not a good thing).

For a person who only formally researches an audience, it can be very much difficult to fully comprehend a particular group of people (receivers).

Friday, October 29, 2010


Pathos is the mode of appeal that is directed toward the senses. My Particular approach to this mode of appeal was to make an image that would initially be attractive to the audience.

For my logos design, I intend to inform the audience of what the product is, and what it’s all about. The Acai berries are shown photographically and the facts tell you about the physical properties of the berries (in an interesting and precise manner).

The original ethos design I interpreted as giving a feal of reliability with its sensible color sqeem, its personable “Zhena’s Gypsy Tea” logo, and the maps which seem to say that the makers of this particular product have traveled far and wide to bring you this special tea.


This is an example of pathos. It shows a impressive number of highly colored, yummy looking acai berries - and is intended to give the impression of abundance, and over indulgence.

This is a happy acai berry. This image is simplistic and is intended to be a reflection of what the viewer will feel when they experience this soothing tea.

This example uses a metaphor between the tea product (which comes from a culture that has religous implications...) and religion. It's the product being enshrined because of its positive attributes and whatnot.


This example uses logic to show the audience what the ingredients of the tea are.

This shows the audience the process of how the tea product is made - from when it grew on the palm tree to when it is in your cup.

this is a simplified version of the last thumbnail.

This is a timeline that uses logic to show the audience how the history of tea in the amazonian region.


This thumbnail shows the history of the company that makes Berry Cassis. Its argument of persuasion shows the audience that this product is reliable because the company has been around for a long time.

the following two show simply how long the company has been around .... 100 years.

this has a twist on the regular logo - the name 'Katjes' is written as a signiture

evolution of one process:

Here is a good example of how one idea evolved throughout this project:

I started with the initial thumbnail sketches. The more variations the better.

Then I started playing around with rendering styles:
I mostly played around with the blueberry stains. I did something very similar to the taxonomy project and ended up making lots and LOTS of marks that I would then select from, scan in and photoshop.

and from that I got these things after multiplying layers together in photoshop:

SOON I ENDED UP WITH what I call my berry burst:
for this I cut a whole in a piece of paper, then used that as a mask (see above) for scrubbing the skin of the blueberry onto paper under that. on the mask itself I got a cool border, and that is how I got what you see here:

SO composition wise and concept wise I ended up with this process of development:


AND here are interesting parts of other similar processes that I worked on simultaneously when doing iterations of the other modes of appeal:

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Friday, October 22, 2010


Here is a very simple yet I think effective example of pathos:

And this one has Ethos written all over it:

And I'd be hard pressed to find a better example of LOGOS:
It shows you the percentage of the ingredients in the energy drink.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010